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Thursday, February 11, 2016

Teaching 'soft skills'

A recent commentary in the Chronicle suggests that "To Solve the Skills Gap in Hiring, Create Expectations in the Classroom". The author notes that employers today report larger gaps in 'soft skills' like time management, work ethic, motivation and professionalism, than in technical skills; yet, the policies adopted by many college instructors do not do much to help students develop those necessary skills. The author refers to her own policies about expecting students to arrive to class and turn in work on time, not offering extra credit, etc.

I think most instructors try to find an appropriate balance between holding students accountable for acting like adults, and understanding that sometimes, life happens. For what it's worth, I thought folks might be interested in how I handle this, at least in my upper-division writing course. In that course, I use a form of specification grading - it's not full-blown specs grading but students' grades are based on performance in three categories: grades on final drafts of papers, points on all other assignments, and "professional responsibility". I explain in the syllabus and on the first day that "professional responsibility" means fulfilling the expectations of this course in a timely and responsible fashion: 
The Professional Responsibility portion of your grade is based entirely on your ability to display good workplace behavior. In general, this means displaying the following skills:
  • Time management: attend class and submit assignments on time; notify appropriate parties when circumstances require missing class or assignments.
  • Professional communication: emails are clear, well-written and relevant; discussion in and out of class is appropriate and respectful.
  • Professional conduct: follow directions; come to class prepared and use class time effectively; demonstrate self-awareness in accepting responsibility for own choices.
Warning: The most common violations of professional responsibility are 1) failure to follow directions, 2) poorly written or irrelevant emails (for example, asking a question that is clearly already answered on Blackboard) and 3) late assignments. I will start the semester assuming that you understand what constitutes professional behavior (and we will be discussing in more detail in class on the first day). After the first instance of unacceptable professional behavior, I will notify you, usually by email. After that, each incident will cost you ten points; however, I do reserve the right to waive this penalty in certain circumstances.
So this gets factored into their grade both through points and through an absolute cut-off for missed assignments - missing more than 2 assignments will reduce their grade to the B range, regardless of their points and grades on papers, missing more than 3 drops them to the C range and missing more than 4 drops them to the D range.

I also talk to them about the grades in terms of their "job performance". That is, in most jobs, you sit down with your manager periodically to review your performance and I tell my students that since their semester grades are a signal to future employers of what to expect from them as an employee, the way I think about grades corresponds to the categories that a lot employers use for those periodic reviews:
A (4)    Excellent work, worthy of bonus and promotion
B (3)    Good work, shows potential
C (2)    Meets basic requirements
D (1)    Needs significant improvement
F (0)    Unacceptable

This also helps me make the point that they should not expect an A or even a B for just showing up and doing all the work - that's what they are expected to do. A higher grade requires they show that they can do good work and go the extra mile. I think literally putting into terms that corresponds to a job makes sense to students, especially given that so many of my students see school as just a means to the end of getting a good job.

What do you do to help students develop these 'soft skills'?

Wednesday, January 20, 2016

Dealing with mobile devices

The SDSU Center for Teaching and Learning finally has a new website and I have to say hallelujah! It seems like a small thing but as someone who spends a lot of time on the Web, the old site was sooooo painful to deal with. But we've now moved to Wordpress so there's a blogging feature, which means I can tag stuff and people can actually find it, and there are cool plug-ins to deal with stuff like the events calendar and faculty profiles. Yeehaw!

One of the challenges of moving to the new site is that I've been killing myself to get content on the site so there's actually something there worth looking at. Before we went live, I added a bunch of back-dated posts for old events, but I also am trying to create content that is actually useful for instructors who want to know more about some specific topic. Given the wealth of information that already exists, I'm mostly curating links from other places but also trying to highlight 'best practices' and provide some guidance for people who may not have thought about these things much before. I'll be adding these topic pages over time and since they are mostly things of general interest to anyone who cares about teaching, I'll likely cross post here.

I just added a page today on 'dealing with mobile devices in the classroom', following a CTL event we had on this topic last week. Go take a look and let me know if there's anything I should add... Regular readers of this blog already know I like to use cell phones as clickers, but I thought it was interesting that at last week's event, one of the suggestions that no one seemed to have heard before was the idea of breaking for a 'tech check' - that is, if you are going to restrict device use, it can be helpful to let students know you will stop periodically to allow them to check their phones. Not only can this alleviate the anxiety students might have about putting their devices away, for those who mostly lecture, it can be a reminder to break up lectures into smaller chunks (which, if you're going to lecture, is definitely a good idea!). Anyone have other suggestions for dealing with mobile devices in the classroom?

Sunday, January 17, 2016

What kind of teacher are you?

I'm "teaching" a new "class" this semester - the quotes are because the "class" is a faculty seminar and it's really more like I'm 'facilitating' than 'teaching'. But the work I'm putting into it feels very much like prepping a course and I had forgotten how much work this is! The seminar is on "High-Impact Teaching", which is really just a term I made up, mostly to appeal to those in my administration who are all about High-Impact Practices, and which I am using to encompass scholarly teaching and using evidence-based pedagogy (if anyone is interested, the details are here).

Anyway, the first meeting was Thursday and in preparation, the participants were asked to complete the Teaching Perspectives Inventory (TPI) and the Teaching Goals Inventory (TGI). I thought I'd share these tools with you all because I think these are both really interesting tools for thinking about who you are as a teacher. The items on the TGI measure your affinity for one of five perspectives: Transmission, Apprenticeship, Developmental, Nurturing and Social Reform; what I found particularly interesting was the breakdown of Beliefs, Intentions and Actions within each perspective. The idea is that no one perspective is "best" - it's just useful to better understand whether what you think you are doing actually lines up with what you want to be doing and what you believe is important. The TGI is similar but breaks things down a little differently and focuses more on the goals you believe are more or less important.

I wasn't particularly surprised that I scored highest on the Apprenticeship and Developmental perspectives on the TPI, which is also consistent with my highest rating on the TGI falling in the cluster emphasizing 'Higher Order Thinking Skills'. But I am not sure what to make of the fact that my average rating on the TGI was lowest in the cluster representing 'Liberal Arts and Academic Values'...

If you've never used done this sort of self-evaluation, I'm curious what you think of your results. Feel free to come share in the comments!

Thursday, January 7, 2016

Love 'em, hate 'em

Economists, that is. For the first time in a couple years, I attended the ASSAs, and for the first time in even more years, I interacted with some economists who are not involved with either ed policy (my research home) or teaching. Ugh, lesson learned. I had somehow forgotten that the majority of people in this discipline (or at least, the majority of those who go to the ASSAs) are white male blowhards who actually think all the math they make grad students do is useful (NOTE: I am totally not talking about YOU, awesome person who reads my blog - I am absolutely certain that no one who is a math-obsessed blowhard would find my blog remotely interesting :-)).

I guess I should take it as reassuring that I managed to forget what the 'typical economist' is like; certainly 20 years ago, when I was in my grad program at Wisconsin, I was very, VERY aware of it. But ed policy is one of those applied micro fields that is pretty equally gender balanced (particularly at the Association of Education Finance and Policy, my research home, which attracts both economists and ed school people), not to mention attracting economists who actually understand market failures and who are interested in social justice; similarly, econ ed is also quite gender-balanced, and most people interested in teaching are also interested in (or at least aware of) diversity issues. And economists interested in teaching tend to recognize that making mathematical models as complicated as possible is NOT the way to turn on undergrads to the awesomeness of our subject. So over the years, I've managed to insulate myself from many of the aspects of this discipline that I hate and the fact that I could do that does give me hope.

But the reality that struck me at the conference is that in many ways, the discipline hasn't changed at all in 20 years (longer - I read Colander's Making of an Economist in the early 90's) and that makes me despair a bit. How can we ever really move the needle of public perceptions (and misconceptions) about our field if those at the leading econ programs can't even recognize or admit there is anything wrong with what they are doing? Graduate school, in any field, is an indoctrination process so those who survive tend to have an inherent interest in defending and sustaining what they have been taught; although people who think differently might be able to find each other in the aftermath, it's hard to see how the cycle itself can be disrupted on a large scale.

That doesn't mean I'm throwing in the towel and will now start teaching all my classes with calculus and no intuition. I do think there have been small changes - when I tell people I'm an economist, one in three might now mention Freakonomics instead of the stock market or GDP, and many fewer seem to be surprised that an economist is working on education policy. And the growing number of economists interested in teaching is awesome. So I can't despair completely. And maybe it's good to be reminded every once in a while that there IS still much work to be done - maybe it will even motivate me to blog a little more often :-)...

Am I wrong? Has economics changed more than I think it has?

Saturday, December 26, 2015

Econ Ed at the ASSAs

Happy Holidays everyone! Although I've been MIA on the blog for, um, months now, I would have to admit total blog defeat if I didn't do my usual post of all the Econ Ed sessions I can find on the ASSA program. Since I'm not quite ready to throw in the blogging towel entirely, here you go... (if I missed anything, please feel free to add in the comments!)

Jan 03, 2016 8:00 am, Hilton Union Square, Golden Gate 8 
American Economic Association
Research in Economic Education (A2)
Presiding: GEORG SCHAUR (University of Tennessee)
Diversity, Effort, and Cooperation in Team Based Learning
MOLLY ESPEY (Clemson University)
Do Students Know Best? Choice, Classroom Time, and Academic Performance
TED JOYCE (City University of New York)
SEAN CROCKETT (City University of New York)
DAVID A. JAEGER (City University of New York)
ONUR ALTINDAG (City University of New York)
STEPHEN DANIEL O'CONNELL (City University of New York)
DAHLIA REMLER (City University of New York)
Women’s Decision to Pursue a Masters Degree in Economics or Finance
ANNE BORING (Sciences Po)
Changing What Our Students Think, What Our Students Know, and What Our Students Think They Know
ADAM J. HOFFER (University of Wisconsin-La Crosse)
MATTHEW ROUSU (Susquehanna University)
GAIL HOYT (University of Kentucky)
OLGA TROITSCHANSKAIA (University of Mainz)
JENNIFER IMAZEKI (San Diego State University)

Jan 03, 2016 10:15 am, Hilton Union Square, Golden Gate 5 
American Economic Association
Research in Economic Education: Efficacy of Interventions in Economic Education (A2)
Presiding: SAM ALLGOOD (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Classroom Experiments: Is more more?
TISHA L.N. EMERSON (Baylor University)
LINDA K. ENGLISH (Baylor University)
Measuring the Effect of Blended Learning: Evidence from a Selective Liberal Arts College
LAUREN FEILER (Carleton College)
AARON SWOBODA (Carleton College)
The Impact of Challenge Quizzes on Student Knowledge
KIMMARIE MCGOLDRICK (University of Richmond)
PETER W. SCHUHMANN (University of North Carolina-Wilimington)
A Randomized Assessment of Online Learning
WILLIAM T. ALPERT (University of Connecticut)
KENNETH A. COUCH (University of Connecticut)
OSKAR R. HARMON (University of Connecticut)
ROBERT REBELEIN (Vassar College)
WILLIAM BOSSHARDT (Florida Atlantic University)
WAYNE GROVE (Le Moyne College)
CHRISTIANA E. HILMER (San Diego State University)

Jan 03, 2016 12:30 pm, Hilton Union Square, Continental – Parlor 2 
National Association of Economic Educators
Teaching with Technology in Classes from 30 to 700 (A2) (Panel Discussion)
Panel Moderator: WILLIAM GOFFE (Pennsylvania State University)
ERIC P. CHIANG (Florida Atlantic University) The Many Formats of Pre-Lectures: How to Prepare Students for Active Learning in Class
MARTHA L. OLNEY (University of California-Berkeley) Using Clickers in Large (700) and Small (30) Enrollment Classes
JOSE J. VAZQUEZ COGNET (University of Illinois-Urbana-Champaign) It is a Clicker Question, Not an Exam Question
J. BRIAN O'ROARK (Robert Morris University) An Economic Song and Dance... Engaging Students in a World of Multi-Media
ROGER BUTTERS (Hillsdale College) Benefits and Costs of Teaching with Technology

Jan 03, 2016 2:30 pm, Hilton Union Square, Franciscan D 
American Economic Association
The Role of Teacher Training in Graduate Economic Education in the United States (A1) (Panel Discussion)
Panel Moderator: SAM ALLGOOD (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
KIMMARIE MCGOLDRICK (University of Richmond)
GAIL HOYT (University of Kentucky)
MARTHA L. OLNEY (University of California, Berkley)
JADRIAN WOOTEN (Pennsylvania State University)

Jan 04, 2016 8:00 am, Hilton Union Square, Union Square 25 
American Economic Association
Humanities and the Teaching of Economics (A2)
Presiding: JEFFREY WAGNER (Rochester Institute of Technology)
Economics of Writing Detective Fiction
KENNETH ELZINGA (University of Virginia)
“Sing Us a Song, You’re the Economist”: The Many Uses of Music and Poetry in the Principles Classroom
CLAIR SMITH (St. John Fisher College)
The A, B, Cs of Teaching Economics: Advertising, Bi-Metalism, & Choices
CYNTHIA BANSAK (St. Lawrence University)
KAREN GIBSON (St. Lawrence University)
Humanities as Technology in Teaching the Principles of Economics
JEFFREY WAGNER (Rochester Institute of Technology)
LAWRENCE OLIVER (Texas A&M University)
DEIRDRE MCCLOSKEY (University of Illinois-Chicago)
SHANNON CHAMBERLAIN (University of California-Berkeley)
JONATHAN WIGHT (University of Richmond)

Jan 04, 2016 10:15 am, Hilton Union Square, Continental – Parlor 3 
American Economic Association
Education and Gender (I2, J1)
Presiding: SHULAMIT KAHN (Boston University)
The STEM Gender Gap: Evidence from the CA State Science Fair
NANNEH CHEHRAS (University of California-Irvine)
Educational Mobility across Three Generations of American Women
SARAH KROEGER (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
OWEN THOMPSON (University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee)
Student Appearance and Class Performance
CHRISTINA PETERS (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
REY HERNANDEZ-JULIAN (Metropolitan State University of Denver)
The Math Gender Gap: The Role of Culture
NÚRIA RODRÍGUEZ-PLANAS (City University of New York-Queens College)
ALMUDENA SEVILLA (Queen Mary University of London)
SHULAMIT KAHN (Boston University)
GARY SOLON (University of Arizona)
TANYA ROSENBLAT (University of Michigan)
MARGARET E. BLUME-KOHOUT (New Mexico Consortium and Mount Holyoke College)

Jan 04, 2016 10:15 am, Hilton Union Square, Union Square 21 
American Economic Association
Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) Data on Financial Literacy (A2)
Presiding: WILLIAM B. WALSTAD (University of Nebraska–Lincoln)
An Overview of the PISA Financial Literacy Assessment
ANNAMARIA LUSARDI (George Washington University)
The Impact of Bank Account Ownership on Adolescents’ Financial Literacy
DIMITRIS CHRISTELIS (University of Naples Federico II)
DIMITRIS GEORGARAKOS (Deutsche Bundesbank)
ANNAMARIA LUSARDI (George Washington University)
Gender Differences in Financial Literacy: Evidence from PISA Data in Italy
LAURA BOTTAZZI (Bologna University)
ANNAMARIA LUSARDI (George Washington University)
Finance for All: The Impact of Financial Literacy Training in Compulsory Secondary Education in Spain
LAURA HOSPIDO (Banco del Espana - Servicio de Estudios)
GEMA ZAMARRO (University of Arkansas)
WILLIAM BOSSHARDT (Florida Atlantic University)
ANNE BORING (Sciences Po)
J. MICHAEL COLLINS (University of Wisconsin - Madison)

Jan 04, 2016 12:30 pm, Hilton Union Square, Continental – Parlor 2 
National Association of Economic Educators
Improving the Learning in Economics Courses (A2)
Presiding: CARLOS J. ASARTA (University of Delaware)
Art of Econ: A Guide to Differentiated Assessment of Students' Learning in Principles Level Couses
ABDULLAH AL-BAHRANI (Northern Kentucky University)
KIM HOLDER (University of West Georgia)
DARSHAK PATEL (University of Kentucky)
JADRIAN WOOTEN (Pennsylvania State University)
The Impact of Information and Incentives on Teachers' Allocation of Instructional Time
AUSTIN S. JENNINGS (University of Delaware)
The Economic Impact of Prior Exam Performance on Current Effort Investment Decisions
TIN-CHUN LIN (Indiana University North West)
Are You More Economic Than a First Grader? Investigating Naive Economic Theories Within a Common Pool Resources Game
AMANDA BROOKE JENNINGS (University of Delaware)
The Invisible Paw: Teaching Economics Using The Berenstain Bears
ERIN A. YETTER (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
AMANDA BROOKE JENNINGS (University of Delaware)
KIM HOLDER (University of West Georgia)
AUSTIN S. JENNINGS (University of Delaware)
ERIN A. YETTER (Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis)
HELEN H. ROBERTS (University of Illinois-Chicago)

Jan 04, 2016 2:30 pm, Hilton Union Square, Yosemite C 
American Economic Association

AEA Committee on Economic Education Poster Session (A2) (Poster Session)
Presiding: STEVEN COBB (University of North Texas)
Developing Large-Scale Interactive Online Gateway Courses for Undergraduate Economics
DMITRIY V. CHULKOV (Indiana University-Kokomo)
SUREKHA RAO (Indiana University-Northwest)
The Use of a Collective Bargaining Simulation and its Impact on Student Perceptions and Critical Thinking Skills
ROD D. RAEHSLER (Clarion University)
Using Musical Theatre Songs to Teach Economics
MATTHEW C. ROUSU (Susquehanna University)
The Greatest Hits of Rock-o-nomix: Discovering Pop Econ for your Classroom
KIM HOLDER (University of West Georgia)
Team-Building Experiment in Application of Economic Concepts in the Series of On-Line Discussions Imitating Real-Life Simulations, as Compared with WIKI Team Projects
SYLWIA E. STARNAWSKA (State University of New York-Empire State College)
Experiments with an Open Source E-Homework and Exam System
RICHARD G. ANDERSON (Lindenwood University)
AREERAT KICHKHA (Lindenwood University)
The Big Bang Game Theory
SIMON MEDCALFE (Georgia Regents University)
Using Screen Recording Technology to Teach Economics Courses and Conduct Research
JENNJOU CHEN (National Chengchi University)
TSUI-FANG LIN (National Taipei University)
Integration of Undergraduate Research in UW-S Economics General Education Courses
ZAMIRA S. SIMKINS (University of Wisconsin-Superior)
RUBANA MAHJABEEN (University of Wisconsin-Superior)
SAKIB MAHMUD (University of Wisconsin-Superior)
Instagraph: Using Instagram in Economics Courses
KRISTEN L. ZABORSKI (State College of Florida-Venice)
Creating, Using, and Sharing Dynamic Graphs
AARON SWOBODA (Carleton College)
Cost-Benefit Analysis for Incorporating Community Partners Into Economics Education (Convincing Them to Help Teach your Students)
WILLIAM ALAN BARTLEY (Transylvania University)
Use of Survey Research Methods in Undergraduate Economics Classes
VERONIKA DOLAR (Long Island University)
In-Depth Learning in Principles of Microeconomics and Elementary Statistics: Independent Courses versus Learning Communities
ROBIN LOVGREN (Belmont University)
KARA D. SMITH (Belmont University)
Defining Sustainable Consumption-An Applied Activity
MADHAVI VENKATESAN (Bridgewater State University)
The Ultimate Field Trip: Using a Country as Your Economics Classroom
HOWARD H. COCHRAN (Belmont University)
MARIETA V. VELIKOVA (Belmont University)
BRADLEY D. CHILDS (Belmont University)
The Challenges of Teaching “Health Economics” (to Students Who Have Only Had Introductory Microeconomics)
RANGANATH MURTHY (Western New England University)
Utilizing Behavioral Economics in the Economics of Health
HANGAMEH HOSSEINI (Pennsylvania State University)
Investigating Store Financing
KATHRYN BIRKELAND (University of South Dakota)
Importing STEM Evidence-Based Teaching Methods into a Large Macro Principles Course
WILLIAM L. GOFFE (Pennsylvania State University)

Jan 05, 2016 10:15 am, Hilton Union Square, Union Square 22 
National Association of Economic Educators
Online versus Face to Face Teaching (A2)
Presiding: HELEN H. ROBERTS (University of Illinois-Chicago)
Comparing Student Performance in Blended and Traditional Courses: Does Prior Academic Achievement Matter?
CARLOS J. ASARTA (University of Delaware)
JAMES R. SCHMIDT (University of Nebraska-Lincoln)
Online vs. Face-to-Face: Pilot Study of a Comparison of Student Outcomes with Random Assignment
JOHN R. SWINTON (Georgia College and State University)
Visualizing Data in a Blended Learning Environment Using the Online FRED Database
DIEGO MENDEZ-CARBAJO (Illinois Wesleyan University)
Putting Yourself in the Picture: Using Student-Generated Photos to Enhance Introductory Economics Courses
ABDULLAH AL-BAHRANI (Northern Kentucky University)
KIM HOLDER (University of West Georgia)
REBECCA MORYL (Emmanuel College)
RYAN MURPHY (Saint Leo University)
DARSHAK PATEL (University of Kentucky)
JOHN R. SWINTON (Georgia College and State University)
CARLOS J. ASARTA (University of Delaware)
KIM HOLDER (University of West Georgia)
HELEN H. ROBERTS (University of Illinois-Chicago)

Jan 05, 2016 10:15 am, Marriott Marquis, Sierra K 
Union for Radical Political Economics
Pluralism in Economic Pedagogy (A2)
Presiding: RON BAIMAN (Benedictine University)
The Supply Curve Generally Does Not Exist, So Why Does it Show Up in Virtually Every Introductory Mainstream and Heterodox Text Book?
RON BAIMAN (Benedictine University)
What Should First Year Students of Economics and Political Economy be Taught?
MEHRENE LARUDEE (University of Massachusetts-Amherst)
Critical Thinking and Pluralism: Reflections on My Pluralist Teaching
IOANA NEGRU (SOAS-University of London )
What Concepts and Principles Should a Pluralist Principles of Economics Textbook Contain?
JOHN REARDON (Hamline University)
GARY MONGIOVI (St. John's University)
GEOFFREY SCHNEIDER (Bucknell University)
SCOTT WEIR (Wake Technical Community College)
JOHN KOMLOS (University of Munich)

And not so much about Econ Ed or pedagogy but likely interesting to folks:

Jan 03, 2016 8:00 am, Hilton Union Square, Golden Gate 3 & 4 
American Economic Association
Economics of Higher Education (I2, J7)
Presiding: CAROLINE HOXBY (Stanford University)
The Impact of the V-SOURCE Program on Disadvantaged Students’ College Enrollment
SARAH REBER (University of California-Los Angeles)
MEREDITH PHILLIPS (University of California-Los Angeles)
Do Public Subsidies Promote College Access and Completion? Evidence from Community College Districts
ISAAC MCFARLIN (University of Michigan)
PACO MARTORELL (University of California-Davis)
BRIAN P. MCCALL (University of Michigan)
The Impact of Intergroup Contact on Racial Attitudes and Revealed Preference
SCOTT CARRELL (University of California-Davis)
MARK HOEKSTRA (Texas A&M University)
JAMES WEST (Baylor University)
Bias in Online Classes: Evidence from a Field Experiment
THOMAS DEE (Stanford University)
RACHEL BAKER (University of California-Irvine)
BRENT EVANS (Vanderbilt University)
JUNE PARK JOHN (Stanford University)
BRIDGET TERRY LONG (Harvard University)
JEFFREY SMITH (University of Michigan) 

Jan 03, 2016 2:30 pm, Hilton Union Square, Powell A & B 
National Economic Association

Policy Interventions and Educational Outcomes (I2, I3)
Presiding: RONALD OAXACA (University of Arizona)
Coordinated Admissions Program
RODNEY ANDREWS (University of Texas-Dallas)
Match or Mismatch? The Role of College Readiness, High School Peers, and Application Uncertainty on College Application Behavior
SANDRA E. BLACK (University of Texas-Austin)
KALENA CORTES (Texas A&M University)
JANE ARNOLD LINCOVE (Tulane University)
Is the Best Interest of the Child Best for Children? Educational Attainment and Child Custody Assignment
TREVON LOGAN (Ohio State University)
YANG CHEN (IMPAQ International)
Education Environment Context Switching and Its Effects on Performance and Instructor Evaluation
SALVADOR CONTRERAS (University of Texas-Rio Grande Valley)
MARIE T. MORA (University of Texas Rio Grande Valley)
LISA D. COOK (Michigan State University)
MARK LOPEZ (Pew Research Center)
OMARI H. SWINTON (Howard University)